Recently, an international team of researchers has discovered that in some people with severe Covid-19, the body attacks the immune defense system instead of against Covid-19. This usually happens in men, which helps to explain why Covid-19 attacks men more than women.
In another study showed that children’s immunity is better than that of adults because immune cells have a strong first response and weaken with age.
According to researchers, the immune system is composed of the innate and acquired immune systems (also called the infective immune systems). Innate immunity is the body’s first line of defense. As soon as the body detects an intruder, signaling molecules are generated, typically the inflammatory protein interferon and cytokine, which launch an attack in the body.
Covid-19 currently hits 35.1 million people globally. Illustration
The innate immune cells adapt to responses during infection and improve intruder identification. B cells begin to make antibodies against the virus, which are being noticed in the development of vaccines. T cells destroy those infected with nCoV. Both T and B cells have the ability to remember, act faster than the next invasions.
Normally, when a virus enters a cell, proteins called type I interferon begin to work, protecting the cell by stopping the growth of the virus. These important molecules do not appear in people with severe Covid-19.
An international research project uncovered two reasons. Analyzing the blood of nearly 1,000 patients with severe Covid-19, the researchers found that one in ten antibodies automatically attacked the wrong target. It is particularly surprising that autoimmune disorders are common in women, but 95% of Covid-19 patients with this condition are men. In addition, the researchers found no signaling molecules in asymptomatic or mild Covid-19 patients.
Of the other 660 Covid-19 severe patients, 3.5% of carriers of the mutation did not produce type I interferon. Dr. Jean – Laurent Casanova, an infectious disease geneticist at Rockefeller University in New York, said Knowing each vulnerability adds enough advantages to the virus. Currently, several interferons are used as drugs and are being investigated as a potential treatment for Covid-19.
Another study on childhood immunity was done by Dr. Betsy Herold from Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York et al. Immunological comparison group between 60 adults and 65 children and adolescents at the New York Monterfiore Health System.
The results showed that the babies produced large amounts of cytokines, which is one of the primary responses of the innate immune system. The next stage, both adults and children, create antibodies that target the nCoV. The difference in the adult’s adaptive immune response point can trigger an over-inflammatory response.
Herold says a child’s strong immune response can beat the virus, overreacting is less common and helps protect the child’s health.
The nCoV strain caused the Covid-19 pandemic. However, researcher Alessandro Sette from La Jolla Immunology Institute, San Diego, studied blood samples stored in the freezer before the pandemic. He found several T cells that remember and recognize a new fraction of the new CoV in the lab. Researchers in Germany, UK and many other countries have found similar.
The study also showed that nCoV has similarities with the regular seasonal flu virus, so researchers believe that those T cells could be remnants of past colds. Rory de Vries, a similar T-cell study in the Netherlands, said she was “not clear about T-cell differences in severe Covid-19 patients”.
“We need to look broader and not be in a hurry to conclude any aspect of the immune system anytime soon,” said Stanford immunologist Bali Pulendran. He has also found some innate immune cells “in a state of hibernation” in adults with severe Covid-19, looking for differences before and after the person becomes ill.
Not only is learning about the immune system, but also a way to predict who is most at risk, says Dr. Anita McElroy, a viral immunologist at the University of Pittsburgh. “We have a long way to go,” he said.
Thus, up to now, the question “why someone with Covid-19 does not show symptoms while someone dies very quickly” has been continued by scientists and has not come to a conclusion .
According to statistics, Covid-19 has now infected more than 35.1 million people globally, of which 1,037,465 people died. In addition, the number of recovery cases in the world reached more than 26.1 million people.
The United States remains the most affected country in the world, with the total number of people infected and killed since the beginning of the Covid-19 epidemic are 7,600,148 and 214,269. The third largest outbreak in the world is Brazil with 4,906,833 people infected and 145,987 deaths. It was followed by Russia with 1,204,502 patients, including 21,251 of whom died.
There are no new cases of COVID-19 in Vietnam. Up to now, Vietnam has not recorded new cases in the community for 32 days. Faced with the epidemic’s developments and impacts on the socio-economic economy of all countries in the world, Vietnam has steadfastly implemented the “dual goal” on the principle of prioritizing safety.
Facing more serious epidemics in many countries, the representative of the World Health Organization (WHO) in Russia, Ms. Melita Vujnovich stated that one of the main reasons is that people are tired of quarantine regulations. .
Ms. Vujnovic noted that the virus is now affecting more young people, as they often ignore prevention and quarantine measures. WHO representative urged people to cooperate with authorities to avoid a large-scale shutdown, which, according to her, will negatively affect the economy, as well as affect the child’s psychological state. people.
An Duong (Th)